Scientific Studies

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International Overview on Clinical & Scientific Studies on Nordic Pole Walking General Studies:

1. NPW engages more than 90% of Body Muscles

2. NPW versus walking without poles:

  • Percentage of Body Muscles involved
  • Calorie Burning Rate per hour

3. Nordic Walking — “Whole body sport”. Interview by Dr. Henrike Ottenjahn

  • Bachfischer K. MMW Fortschr Med. 2005 Jul 21;147(29-30):19. Germany

4. Comparison of kinematic and kinetic parameters between the locomotion patterns in Nordic walking, walking and running

  • Kleindienst FI, Michel KJ, Schwarz J, Krabbe B.
  • Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2006 Mar;20(1):25-30. German. PMID: 16544213

5. Effects of Nordic Pole Walking on Functional Capacity in Patients with Moderate to Severe Heart Failure

  • ML Keast, R Reid, M Slovinec-D’Angelo, L McDonnell Minto Prevention & Rehabilitation Centre, Ottawa, 2010

  1. Cardiovascular System

1.1. Influence on Coronary Diseases and Peripheral Vascular Diseases

  • (Walter et.al.,1996; Stroughton, Larkin, Karawan, 1992 Parkatti et.al.,2003; Koskinen et.al.,2003 and other)

1.2. Influence on High Blood Pressure: How NPW decreases High Blood Pressure

  • (Ishikawa et. al.,1999. C. Diehm, 2007)

2. Musculoskeletal System

2.1. Diminishing Neck- and Shoulder Tension/Pain

  • (Anttila et al., 1999)

2.2. Chronic Joint Problems, Load Reduction on Lower Back, Hips and Knees

  • (Mayo Clinic, 2008), Wilson, 2001), Young-Hoo Kwon, 2008)

2.3. Less Impact on Joints: Mechanics of Pole Walking in subject with Chronic Knee Problem

  • (Willson et al.,2001; Young-Hoo Kwon, Lori R. Bolt, and Jackun Shi Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA, 2008)

2.4. Nordic Poles immediate improve Walking Distance in Patients with Intermitted Claudication

  • (C. Oakleya , I. Zwiersk, G. Tew, J.D. Beard and J.M. Saxton, 2008. University, Sheffield, S10 2BP, UK Sheffield Vascular Institute, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, S5 7AU, UK)

2.5. Posture Enhancement & Segmental Stability

  • (Koskinen et al., 2003)

2.6. Lower Trunk and Posture Control

  • (Koskinen et al., 2003)

2.7. Functional Benefits

  • (Parkatti et al.,2002)

2.8. Gait modification strategies for altering medial knee joint load: A systematic review.

  • Simic M, Hinman RS, Wrigley TV, Bennell KL, Hunt MA.
  • Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 Oct 27.

2.9. Does moderate-to-high intensity Nordic walking improve functional capacity and pain in fibromyalgia? A prospective randomized controlled trial.

  • Mannerkorpi K, Nordeman L, Cider A, Jonsson G.,Arthritis Res Ther. 2010 Oct 13;12(5):R189

2.10. Supervised and non-supervised Nordic walking in the treatment of chronic low-back pain: a single blind randomized clinical trial.

  • Hartvigsen J, Mors¸ L, Bendix T, Manniche , BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Feb 10;11:30.PMID: 20146793

2.11. Inverse dynamic analysis of the lower extremities during Nordic Walking, Walking, and Running.

  • Stief F, Kleindienst FI, Wiemeyer J, Wedel F, Campe S, Krabbe B.
  • J Appl Biomech. 2008 Nov;24(4):351-9.PMID: 19075304

2.12. Nordic walking–is it suitable for patients with fractured vertebra?

  • Wendlova J. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2008;109(4):171-6.PMID: 18814434

2.13. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain: design of a randomized clinical trial.

  • Mors¸ L, Hartvigsen J, Puggaard L, Manniche C.
  • BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006 Oct 2;7:77.PMID: 17014731

3. Effect on Metabolism

3.1. Effects of nordic walking and exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

  • Gram B, Christensen R, Christiansen C, Gram J. .Clin J Sport Med. 2010 Sep;20(5):355-61

3.2. Most effective for Diabetes: Influence of NPW on Medication with Patients suffering Diabetes Type 2

  • (Nischwitz et.al. Medical University Munich, 2006; Clinic Bad Wiessee,2006)

3.3. Physical Activity and Diabetes Type 2 (Siegmund,T., Clinicum Munich, Clinicum Bogenhausen, 2009)

3.4. Physiological responses to nordic walking, walking and jogging.

  • Schiffer T, Knicker A, Hoffman U, Harwig B, Hollmann W, Struder HK.
  • Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Sep;98(1):56-61. Epub 2006 Jun 24.PMID: 16799817

3.5. Energy expenditure and comfort during Nordic walking with different pole lengths.

  • Hansen EA, Smith G J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jul;23(4):1187-94.PMID: 19528847

3.6. Effects of Nordic Walking and exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

  • Gram B, Christensen R, Christiansen C, Gram J.
  • Clin J Sport Med. 2010 Sep;20(5):355-61

3.7. Weight Loss through Nordic Pole Walking

  • (Heikkila et al., 2004)

3.8. Intensity of Nordic Walking in young females with different peak O2 consumption.

  • Jurimae T, Meema K, Karelson K, Purge P, Jurimae J.
  • Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2009 Sep;29(5):330-4. Epub 2009 May 14.PMID: 19469785.

3.9. Changes in level of VO2max, blood lipids, and waist circumference in the response to moderate endurance training as a function of ovarian aging.

  • Hagner W, Hagner-Derengowska M, Wiacek M, Zubrzycki IZ.
  • Menopause. 2009 Sep-Oct;16(5):1009-13.PMID: 19339904

3.10. Energy cost and pole forces during Nordic walking under different surface conditions.

  • Schiffer T, Knicker A, Dannl R, Struder HK.
  • Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Mar;41(3):663-8.PMID: 19204583

3.11. Field testing of physiological responses associated with Nordic Walking.

  • Church TS, Earnest CP, Morss GM. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2002 Sep;73(3):296-300.PMID: 12230336

4. Mental Health

4.1. NPW and Depression

  • (C. Willemer, K. Krüger, F.C. Mooren, K. Volker, S. Knecht and A. Floel, University of Muenster,Germany, 2008

4.2. Comparing exercise in Parkinson’s disease–the Berlin LSVTBIG study.

  • Ebersbach G, Ebersbach A, Edler D, Kaufhold O, Kusch M, Kupsch A, Wissel J.
  • Mov Disord. 2010 Sep 15;25(12):1902-8.PMID: 20669294

4.3. Nordic walking improves mobility in Parkinson’s disease.

  • van Eijkeren FJ, Reijmers RS, Kleinveld MJ, Minten A, Bruggen JP, Bloem BR.
  • Mov Disord. 2008 Nov 15;23(15):2239-43.PMID: 18816697

4.4. Physical activity of depressed patients and their motivation to exercise: Nordic Walking in family practice.

  • Suija K, Pechter U, Kalda R, T hepµld H, Maaroos J, Maaroos HI.
  • Int J Rehabil Res. 2009 Jun;32(2):132-8.PMID: 19065108

4.5. Effects of exercise on aerobic capacity and fatigue in women with primary Sjogren’s syndrome.

  • Strombeck BE, Theander E, Jacobsson LT.
  • Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 May;46(5):868-71. Epub 2007 Feb 17.PMID: 17308315

4.6. Physiological and perceptual responses to Nordic walking in obese middle-aged women in comparison with the normal walk.

  • Figard-Fabre H, Fabre N, Leonardi A, Schena F.
  • Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Apr;108(6):1141-51. Epub 2009 Dec 20

5. Respiratory

5.1. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomized controlled trial.

  • Breyer MK, Breyer-Kohansal R, Funk GC, Dornhofer N, Spruit MA, Wouters EF, Burghuber OC, Hartl S.
  • Respir Res. 2010 Aug 22;11:112.PMID: 20727209

5.2. Up to 25% more oxygen uptake with Pole Walking than walking without poles

  • (Pocari et al, 1997. Morss et al, 2001. Jordan, 2001)

6. Rehabilitation

6.1 Effects of Walking Poles on Shoulder Function in Breast Cancer Survinors

  • (L. K. Sprod, S.N. Drum, A.T. Bentz, S.D. Carter, C.M. Schneider University of Northern Colorado, Rocky Mountain Cancer Rehabilitation Institute, Greeley, Colorado, 2005)

6.2. Effects of Nordic Walking training on exercise capacity and fitness in men participating in early, short-term inpatient cardiac rehabilitation after an acute coronary syndrome — a controlled trial.

  • Kocur P, Deskur-Smielecka E, Wilk M, Dylewicz P.
  • Clin Rehabil. 2009 Nov;23(11):995-1004. Epub 2009 Sep 28

6.3. Questions on “Whole body sport kind with drive”. Nordic walking after disk prolapse

  • Bachfischer K, Modersohn-Meyer G, Niederhuber H, Schluter J.
  • MMW Fortschr Med. 2005 Sep 22;147(38):16, 18. German.

6.4. Effect of different walking aids on walking capacity of patients with post stroke hemiparesis.

  • Allet L, Leemann B, Guyen E, Murphy L, Monnin D, Herrmann FR, Schnider A.
  • Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 Aug;90(8)

6.5. Sports activity after total hip resurfacing.

  • Banerjee M, Bouillon B, Banerjee C, Bathis H, Lefering R, Nardini M, Schmidt J.
  • Am J Sports Med. 2010 Jun;38(6):1229-36. Epub 2010 Mar 11.PMID

6.6. Nordic walking. Also suitable in rehabilitation

  • Heinz M. Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2003 Jun;17(2):55. German.

7. Pregnancy

7.1. Physical activity in pregnancy and in breast-feeding period in obese mothers

  • Korsten-Reck U. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2010 Jun;214(3):95-102. Epub 2010 Jun 23. German

8. Nordic Pole Walking for Seniors

8.1. Nordic walking: a new form of physical activity in the elderly

  • Turk Z, Vidensek S, Micetic Turk D.
  • Acta Med Croatica. 2007;61 Suppl 1:33-6. Croatian. PMID: 18949923

8.2. Factors predicting dynamic balance and quality of life in home-dwelling elderly women.

  • Karinkanta S, Heinonen A, Sievanen H, Uusi-Rasi K, Kannus P.
  • Gerontology. 2005 Mar-Apr;51(2):116-21.PMID: 15711078

8.3. Influence of NPW on functions important to everyday life for the elderly

  • (Parkatti et al., 2002)

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